Nobel Prize in Physics to three scientists for their work on electrons | ET REALITY

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The Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded on Tuesday to Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz and Anne L’Huillier for their experiments that “have given humanity new tools to explore the world of electrons within atoms and molecules.”

The movements of electrons in atoms and molecules are so fast that they are measured in “attoseconds,” and experiments conducted by the three scientists demonstrated that attosecond pulses can be observed and measured, the awarding committee said.

Eva Olsson, chair of the Nobel Committee for Physics, said at a news conference Tuesday that attosecond science “allows us to address fundamental questions,” such as the time scale of the photoelectric effect for which Albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize in Physics. in 1921.

An attosecond is one millionth of a billionth of a second. The number of them in a second is the same as the number of seconds that have passed since the universe emerged 13.8 billion years ago, according to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which awards the physics prize.

“Now that the world of the attosecond has become accessible” the Nobel committee wrote on the social platform“These short bursts of light can be used to study the movements of electrons.”

Pierre Agostini is professor emeritus at Ohio State University.

Ferenc Krausz is director of the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Germany and professor of experimental physics at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich.

Anne L’Huillier is a professor at Lund University in Sweden.

“Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz and Anne L’Huillier have demonstrated a way to create extremely short pulses of light that can be used to measure the rapid processes in which electrons move or change energy,” the award committee said.

The contributions of the winners have made it possible to investigate processes so fast that “previously they were impossible to follow,” he added.

“Through their experiments, this year’s laureates have created flashes of light that are short enough to take snapshots of the extremely fast movements of electrons,” the committee said in a news release.

“Anne L’Huillier discovered a new effect of the interaction of laser light with the atoms of a gas,” the committee said.

“Pierre Agostini and Ferenc Krausz demonstrated that this effect can be used to create shorter light pulses than was possible until now,” the committee added.

The work of the three laureates will pave the way for possible applications in areas such as electronics and medicine, Dr. Olsson said.

According to the award committee, attosecond pulses can also be used to identify different molecules, for example in medical diagnosis.

The award went to John Clauser, Alain Aspect and Anton Zeilinger for independent works exploring quantum oddity.

On Monday, the prize in Physiology or Medicine went to Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman for a chemical modification of messenger RNA. His research led to the successful development of the Covid-19 vaccine and saved millions of lives. Dr. Karikó is the thirteenth woman to win the Nobel Prize in this category.

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry will be awarded on Wednesday by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. Last year, Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten Meldal and K. Barry Sharpless shared awards for their work on click chemistry.

  • The Nobel Prize for Literature will be awarded on Thursday by the Swedish Academy in Stockholm. Last year, Annie Ernaux received the award for work that dissected the most humiliating, private and scandalous moments from her past with almost clinical precision.

  • The Nobel Peace Prize will be awarded on Friday by the Norwegian Nobel Institute in Oslo. Last year, the award was shared by Memorial, a Russian organization; the Center for Civil Liberties of Ukraine; and Ales Bialiatski, a jailed Belarusian activist.

  • Next week, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences will award the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in Stockholm on Monday. Last year, Ben S. Bernanke, Douglas W. Diamond and Philip H. Dybvig shared the award for their work that helped reshape the way the world understands the relationship between banks and financial crises.

All award announcements will also be broadcast live by the Nobel Prize organization.

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